• Article Details:
  • 2009
  • Battle of Saratoga

Article Details:

– General John Burgoyne, letter to Lord George Germain (1777)

Updated 1:02 AM ET, Mon December 14, 2015

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In order to fix more precisely the sense and application of the preceding article, the Contracting Parties declare, that in case of rupture between france and England, the reciprocal Guarantee declared in the said article shall have its full force and effect the moment such War shall break out and if such rupture shall not take place, the mutual obligations of the said guarantee shall not commence, until the moment of the cessation of the present War between the united states and England shall have ascertained the Possessions.

Trials and Tribulations of a New Nation

I am profoundly convinced of it ...

This establishment of a Republic appears to have been viewed, in the circumstances, as politically necessary by the would-be Provisional Government.


Think, gentlemen, of the old (i.e.

Do you not feel -- what shall I say?
Presidential elections are like the NFL in reverse. Winning the election is akin to winning the Super Bowl–the pinnacle of success. But then you have to play the regular season, and slog out victories game by game for four years–then history will define success.

It seems to me that, but for 100,000 votes in three states, out of 125 million votes cast, this post wouldn’t see the light of day. In other words, it was a close run thing–not a paradigm shift or a turning point in world history.

I think you would be very wrong to do so; but keep them.

It is said that the wizened Justice Ginsburg did not retire during Obama’s term because she was certain that Hillary would be appointing her successor. #Winning

Keep the men, too, if it gives you any pleasure.

Outstanding analysis, Zombie. We still have a lot of work to do to drive the Left back to the fringes of polite society where it belongs. This election was merely the beginning.
And thanks for pointing out what I’ve been saying for a long time: this is being done to us against our will. None of it is organic. Every bit of the radical, far-left ideology we see in our society is the result of outside forces trying to control us, make us doubt our values and question our very own conscience.
Keep up the good work, Zombie.

I raise no objection so far as I am concerned.

It proved to be the case that the recently elected political representatives of France as a whole were not prepared to endorse many of the policies that were preferred by Parisian radicals.

Nous sommes là nature qui se défend !

Lamartine at the time the assembly met for the first time was clearly the most popular public figure in France, although offered nomination as temporary President of the Republic by the new assembly Lamartine unexpectedly declined!
Just as he had taken risks in pursuit of a moderate liberal transformation of French society by being prominent amongst the seven individuals nominated by the former French Chamber of Deputies who had won acceptance as authority figures by those gathered at the Hôtel de Ville in the early days of the 1848 revolution, and again in declining to accept the red flag as the banner of France, Lamartine now again took a risk by opting to align himself in some ways with Ledru-Rollin, (and the leadership of some of the political clubs), maintaining that France should invest executive power in a committee and making it plain that he, himself, would not serve on such a committee unless Ledru-Rollin was also on that committee.
Lamartine, by these decisions, seems to have been prepared to move away from the political moderates, in the hope of achieving a broad "national solidarity" consensus after committee discussions where he could use his charm and persuasion to establish containing limits to the policies being pursued by politically committed radicals.

Watch the moment when the new, universal was adopted at

As Adolphe Thiers, who was long prominent as a liberal politician, and who was somewhat opposed to this turn of events said, in his first parliamentary speech under these political arrangements:- :-