• Ruth Marcus, columnist, The Washington Post
  • Money in Politics Campaign – Democracy Watch
  • Money to the Ref

A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the democratic public that is voting for its elected officials.

Turkey’s opaque system of political financing | istanbul …

Political campaign fundraising made secure and easy

like all forms of financing, borrowing money for political campaigns has both pros and cons
No person, during the course of any campaign for nomination or election to public office or office of a political party, shall knowingly and with intent to affect the outcome of such campaign do any of the following: Serve, or place another person to serve, as an agent or employee in the election campaign organization of a candidate for the purpose of acting to impede the conduct of the candidate's campaign for nomination or election or of reporting information to the employee's employer or the agent's principal without the knowledge of the candidate or the candidate's organization; Promise, offer, or give any valuable thing or valuable benefit to any person who is employed by or is an agent of a candidate or a candidate's election campaign organization for the purpose of influencing the employee or agent with respect to the improper discharge of the employee's or agent's campaign duties or to obtain information about the candidate or the candidate's campaign organization. No person, during the course of any campaign for nomination or election to public office or office of a political party, by means of campaign materials, including sample ballots, an advertisement on radio or television or in a newspaper or periodical, a public speech, press release, or otherwise, shall knowingly and with intent to affect the outcome of such campaign do any of the following: Use the title of an office not currently held by a candidate in a manner that implies that the candidate does currently hold that office or use the term "re-elect" when the candidate has never been elected at a primary, general, or special election to the office for which he or she is a candidate; Make a false statement concerning the formal schooling or training completed or attempted by a candidate; a degree, diploma, certificate, scholarship, grant, award, prize, or honor received, earned, or held by a candidate; or the period of time during which a candidate attended any school, college, community technical school, or institution; Make a false statement concerning the professional, occupational, or vocational licenses held by a candidate, or concerning any position the candidate held for which the candidate received a salary or wages; Make a false statement that a candidate or public official has been indicted or convicted of a theft offense, extortion, or other crime involving financial corruption or moral turpitude; Make a statement that a candidate has been indicted for any crime or has been the subject of a finding by the Ohio elections commission without disclosing the outcome of any legal proceedings resulting from the indictment or finding; Make a false statement that a candidate or official has a record of treatment or confinement for mental disorder; Make a false statement that a candidate or official has been subjected to military discipline for criminal misconduct or dishonorably discharged from the armed services; Falsely identify the source of a statement, issue statements under the name of another person without authorization, or falsely state the endorsement of or opposition to a candidate by a person or publication; Make a false statement concerning the voting record of a candidate or public official; Post, publish, circulate, distribute, or otherwise disseminate a false statement concerning a candidate, either knowing the same to be false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not, if the statement is designed to promote the election, nomination, or defeat of the candidate.As used in this section, "voting record" means the recorded "yes" or "no" vote on a bill, ordinance, resolution, motion, amendment, or confirmation. Before a prosecution may commence under this section, a complaint shall be filed with the Ohio elections commission under section of the Revised Code. After the complaint is filed, the commission shall proceed in accordance with sections to of the Revised Code. Effective Date: 08-24-1995 .

Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008 - Wikipedia

The high cost of financing political campaigns favor _____, who have an easier time raising money. A) incumbent candidates B) African American candidates
As used in this section, "federal political committee" means a political committee, as defined in the Federal Election Campaign Act, that is registered with the federal election commission under that act. Any federal political committee may make contributions, expenditures, or independent expenditures from its federal account in connection with any state or local election in Ohio. Prior to making any such contribution, expenditure, or independent expenditure, the federal political committee shall register with the secretary of state by filing a copy of its most recent federal statement of organization. A federal political committee registered with the secretary of state under this division shall file with the secretary of state any amendment to its statement of organization that is required under the Federal Election Campaign Act to be reported to the federal election commission. When, during any federal reporting period under the Federal Election Campaign Act, a federal political committee makes a contribution, expenditure, or independent expenditure from its federal account in connection with a state or local election in Ohio, the committee shall file with the secretary of state not later than the date on which its report is required to be filed with the appropriate federal office or officer under the Federal Election Campaign Act, copies of the following pages from that report: The summary page; The detailed summary page; The page or pages that contain an itemized list of the contributions, expenditures, and independent expenditures made in connection with state and local elections in Ohio.The total amount of contributions, expenditures, and independent expenditures made in connection with state and local elections in Ohio shall be reflected on the summary page or on a form that the secretary of state shall prescribe. When, during any calendar year, a federal political committee makes a contribution from its federal account in connection with a state or local election in Ohio to a state or local political action committee that is required under section of the Revised Code to file any statement prescribed by section of the Revised Code, and the federal political committee and state or local political action committee are established, financed, maintained, or controlled by the same corporation, organization, continuing association, or other person, including any parent, subsidiary, division, department, or unit of that corporation, organization, continuing association, or other person, the federal political committee shall file a statement with the secretary of state not later than the last business day of January of the next calendar year. The statement shall be on a form prescribed by the secretary of state and shall include a list of the names and addresses of contributors that are residents of Ohio that made contributions to the federal political committee during the calendar year covered by the statement and, for each name listed, the aggregate total amount contributed by each contributor during the reporting period. Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.105, SB 295, §1, eff. 8/15/2012.

 

Campaign Contribution Limits: Overview

Advocating for stronger and more democratic political donation and spending laws
"Independent expenditure" means an expenditure by a person advocating the election or defeat of an identified candidate or candidates, that is not made with the consent of, in coordination, cooperation, or consultation with, or at the request or suggestion of any candidate or candidates or of the campaign committee or agent of the candidate or candidates. As used in division (C)(17) of this section: "Person" means an individual, partnership, unincorporated business organization or association, political action committee, political contributing entity, separate segregated fund, association, or other organization or group of persons, but not a labor organization or a corporation unless the labor organization or corporation is a political contributing entity. "Advocating" means any communication containing a message advocating election or defeat. "Identified candidate" means that the name of the candidate appears, a photograph or drawing of the candidate appears, or the identity of the candidate is otherwise apparent by unambiguous reference. "Made in coordination, cooperation, or consultation with, or at the request or suggestion of, any candidate or the campaign committee or agent of the candidate" means made pursuant to any arrangement, coordination, or direction by the candidate, the candidate's campaign committee, or the candidate's agent prior to the publication, distribution, display, or broadcast of the communication. An expenditure is presumed to be so made when it is any of the following: Based on information about the candidate's plans, projects, or needs provided to the person making the expenditure by the candidate, or by the candidate's campaign committee or agent, with a view toward having an expenditure made; Made by or through any person who is, or has been, authorized to raise or expend funds, who is, or has been, an officer of the candidate's campaign committee, or who is, or has been, receiving any form of compensation or reimbursement from the candidate or the candidate's campaign committee or agent; Except as otherwise provided in division (D) of section 3517.105 of the Revised Code, made by a political party in support of a candidate, unless the expenditure is made by a political party to conduct voter registration or voter education efforts. "Agent" means any person who has actual oral or written authority, either express or implied, to make or to authorize the making of expenditures on behalf of a candidate, or means any person who has been placed in a position with the candidate's campaign committee or organization such that it would reasonably appear that in the ordinary course of campaign-related activities the person may authorize expenditures.

Summary of state laws on campaign contribution limits
Subject to division (C)(4)(a)(ii) of this section and except for a designated state campaign committee, no county political party shall knowingly accept a contribution or contributions from any individual who is under seven years of age, or accept a contribution or contributions for the party's state candidate fund aggregating more than ten thousand dollars from any one individual whose designated Ohio residence is located within that county and who is seven years of age or older or from any one campaign committee in a calendar year. Subject to division (D)(1) of this section, no county political party shall accept a contribution or contributions for the party's state candidate fund from any individual whose designated Ohio residence is located outside of that county and who is seven years of age or older, from any campaign committee unless the campaign committee's candidate will appear on a ballot in that county or unless the campaign committee's candidate is the holder of an elected public office that represents all or part of the population of that county at the time the contribution is accepted, or from any political action committee or any political contributing entity. No county political party shall accept a contribution or contributions from any other county political party.