• Groundwater Pollution
  • Groundwater pollution - Wikipedia
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naturally contaminated groundwater) and artificial (e.g.

Nitrates pose a great threat to our precious groundwater.

Many early landfills were not designed to keep rain water from leaching into the groundwater.
Only about half of the world’s groundwater resources is located sufficiently close to the land surface to allow its withdrawal to be economically feasible (Photo 44). Some have identified this limit as being no more than about 800m below the land surface, although the ease of underground water extraction also depends on other factors. The majority of drinking water supplies on a global scale is from groundwater sources. Agricultural production also uses large quantities of groundwater. This latter water use is of special significance in that large quantities of water used for agricultural irrigation undergo transpiration back into the atmosphere via irrigated crops, thereby short-circuiting its passage through the hydrologic cycle. This water “consumption ” is in contrast to water used for drinking water supply and industry. The latter is eventually discharged back into streams, rivers and other receiving water systems, thereby allowing its reuse, usually after pre-treatment of some type.

Such flow has caused massive groundwater contamination.

So, Winter (1998) considered groundwater and surface water as a single resource....
On September 12, 2013, environmental groups filed a law suit against Duke Energy for their inability to properly clean up toxic ash, which has caused the pollution of Sutton Lake and severe groundwater pollution in the surrounding area (WWAY)....

 

Groundwater Contamination - Groundwater Foundation


In contrast to the saturated zone, the spaces between the soil particles above the water-table contain no water. This upper soil layer represents the unsaturated zone. The water-table will rise as more water enters the saturated zone (e. g., during periods of precipitation), and it will fall as water is withdrawn from the aquifer (e. g., via wells and pumps) faster than it can be replenished by natural precipitation or other water inputs. Thus, the bottom boundary of the unsaturated zone rises or falls, conversely to the dynamics of the saturated zone. As previously noted, wetlands constitute areas in which the water- table is at, or higher than, the land surface, resulting in a perpetually water-saturated soil condition. Springs (Photos 42 and 43), and artesian wells represent hydrologic conduits or discharge areas through which groundwater can reach the land surface.


If a person digs a well to a depth where water is encountered, the depth at which the water is first encountered identifies the uppermost boundary of the water-saturated soil. Stated another way, it is the upper boundary at which all the spaces between the soil particles are filled with water. Thus, all the soil below this depth comprises the “saturated ” soil zone. The water surface in the well coincides with the upper boundary of the groundwater, and is commonly called the “water table ”.


Hinkley groundwater contamination - Wikipedia

There are several groundwater properties that fundamentally affect how and where humans interact with it. Water exists under the land surface in permeable geological formations known as aquifers. In some geographic settings (e. g., valleys between mountain ranges), the physical boundaries of an aquifer can closely coincide with the surface stream watershed. However, in limestone and sandhill areas, the physical boundaries of aquifers and surface watersheds can have very different configurations and can be completely unrelated.

Rain Gardens At Home - Groundwater Foundation

Groundwater represents the portion of precipitation that seeps (“infiltrates ”) into the land surface, entering the empty spaces between soil particles. The larger the soil particles (Fig. 9), the larger the empty spaces, and the greater the potential for water infiltration. Soils composed of large soil particles are more permeable than soils composed of small particles. Thus, they can hold more water than the latter. The infiltrating water sources include natural precipitation or snowmelt, streams, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands.

Image Gallery - The UK Groundwater Forum

Groundwater is constantly in motion (Fig. 10). However, its velocity is highly variable, ranging from as little as a few metres per year to as much as a few metres per day. During periods of little precipitation or land surface runoff, groundwater can seep into overlying stream and river channels, thereby providing most or all of the streamflow during such periods (so-called “base flow ”, or dry- weather flow of perennial streams). In fact, groundwater comprises the only readily available natural freshwater supplies in semi- arid and arid regions. This reality has water supply implications in that excessive water withdrawal from a groundwater aquifer can directly affect water availability throughout an overlying watershed. It is noted that the replenishment of groundwater supplies in arid and semi-arid regions is very slow, even though these water resources are the most important and critical in such regions.

GAMA - Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and …

Groundwater comprises water that flows under the land surface (Fig. 8). Most people only encounter groundwater within the context of water wells and, accordingly, it has been characterized by some as being “out of sight, out of mind ”. Nothing is further from the truth. Groundwater represents the largest single source of fresh water in the hydrological cycle available for beneficial human uses, being greater in volume than all the water in rivers, lakes and wetlands combined. The groundwater in the United States alone, for example, exceeds the total water volume contained in all its lakes, reservoirs, rivers and wetlands. On the other hand, approximately half of the world ’s groundwater resources are located underground at depths too deep to be economically exploited for human use.