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60. Coffin PO, Sullivan SD. Cost-effectiveness of distributing naloxone to heroin users for lay overdose reversal. ;158:-

Naloxone: long history as safe, reliable and effective medication

Marijuana use has increased since 2007

Now drug users often flag down officers for help rather than running from them, Glynn said.
A man with a longtime heroin addiction, Mr. Mason was entering one of the deadliest windows for jailed users returning to the streets: the first two weeks after release, when they often make the mistake of returning to a dose their body can no longer handle.

Heroin Epidemic: 6 Ways to Prevent Overdoses | Time

A large fraction of heroin users now report that they formerly used prescription opioids nonmedically, a finding that has led to restrictions on opioid prescribing.
These factors could also influence the potential for abuse of the various opioid drugs, because opioid drug–taking behavior is likely to be influenced by the balance between positive and negative subjective ratings engendered by a specific opioid. For example, a study involving heroin abusers showed that the reinforcing effects of oxycodone were similar to those produced by morphine or heroin, but unlike morphine or heroin, oxycodone produced no “bad” effects in the participants in the study. Similar considerations may help explain why several prescription opioids — such as hydromorphone, fentanyl, morphine, and oxycodone — have a potential for abuse that is similar to, and in some cases even higher than, the potential for abuse with heroin. Finally, these differential properties and effects are likely to interact with interindividual variability in powerful, complex, and incompletely predictable ways, so that some persons who abuse prescription opioids could find heroin less rewarding than prescription opioids, similarly rewarding, or even more rewarding.


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Most people use drugs for the first time when they are teenagers. There were just over 2.8 million new users of illicit drugs in 2013, or about 7,800 new users per day.
For the period before 2011, our results are similar to those in other research reports, with increasing rates of opioid analgesic abuse. The Drug Abuse Warning Network reported an increase of 183% in medical emergencies related to opioid pharmaceuticals from 2004 to 2011, the last year for which data are available. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health noted increasing dependence on and abuse of prescription pain relievers from 2002 through 2012, the last year for which data are available. Similarly, admissions for the treatment of opioid dependence and addiction increased through 2011. These increases in drug availability and abuse have been reflected in the numbers of deaths caused by prescription opioids, which increased for 11 consecutive years and reached 16,651 deaths nationally in 2010.

Myth: Heroin is a drug abused only by older drug users. Fact: For many years a large percentage of heroin users were aged 30 or older, but that number is changing.
In addition to increasing their heroin sales, this would allow Mexican organizations the kind of drugs they push to include cocaine, meth, and marijuana in addition to heroin.

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"The increase in donors in the past year is pretty substantial and not really anticipated," said David Klassen, chief medical officer for the United Network for Organ Sharing. "A significant part of it can be explained by the drug overdoses as contributing to it, but not all of it. There's a lot of effort in the transplant community to increase donation and awareness of seeking every last donor and try to be as efficient as possible."

US heroin coming from Mexican cartels - Business Insider

The outlook for heroin use in the US is grim. The criminal organizations that produce and transport it are making concerted efforts to increase their offerings, and the low cost and high demand ensure that America’s latest will remain in high supply.

Nov 15, 2015 · Demand is high, and the outlook is grim

The portrait of the governor's native state that emerged was severe, conjuring up images more commonly associated with blighted inner cities than a state with the nation's fifth-lowest unemployment rate and a populace that is 95 percent white. Since 2000, Shumlin noted, Vermont has seen an eightfold increase in those seeking treatment for opiate use, with an almost 40 percent spike in the past year for heroin alone, and every day hundreds are languishing on waiting lists for understaffed clinics. Deaths from overdoses in 2013 had nearly doubled from 2012; property crimes and home invasions were on the rise; and close to 80 percent of the state's inmates "are either addicted or in prison because of their addiction." The same major highways where tourists routinely pull over to take photos of rustic vistas had, in the governor's description, become pipelines of heroin distribution, with organized gangs setting up outposts across the state, where a six-dollar bag of heroin in their home cities can fetch as much as $30. As a result, an estimated $2 million worth of opiates were now being trafficked into Vermont each week – a staggering amount for a state that, with only 626,000 residents, is the second-least-populated in the country, after Wyoming.

Why So Many White American Men Are Dying - Newsweek

With its sparse population spread throughout towns less populated than single blocks in major cities, Vermont stands out as a state where, perhaps more than any in the nation, the complexity and consequences of heroin's current rise come into grim focus. Unlike residents of New York City, who may be surprised to learn that fatal overdoses there increased 84 percent between 2010 and 2012 – a spike diluted among a population of 8.3 million – rare is the Vermonter who does not have a heroin story to share. The CEO whose daughter died of an overdose. The counselor at the treatment clinic robbed in broad daylight. The neighborhood coalitions in quaint hamlets trying, and failing, to keep their blocks from becoming open-air drug markets. The nearly 700 bags seized in Westminster from under the car seat of a five-year-old girl. Not long ago, in Burlington, a 29-year-old former user sits inside a coffee shop on a busy thoroughfare lined with outdoorsy boutiques, yoga studios and craft breweries, telling his own story of addiction and recovery. He stops himself midsentence and nods at the two people next to him who are in the process of conducting a deal. "See that?" he says. "The shit is everywhere."