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Law of the United States - Wikipedia

What is Judicial Independence | The Judicial Learning …

The framers of the Constitution drafted Article III in order to establish a federal judiciary—a ..
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The Senate and General Assembly make up the . The Senate has 40 , and the General Assembly has 80 . One senator and two assembly members are elected from each of the 40 districts of New Jersey. The Senate and Assembly chambers are located in the State House in Trenton.

The Legislature's main job is to enact laws. The Legislature can also propose amendments to the New Jersey Constitution.

The Senate and General Assembly meet for about 40 sessions a year. Sessions are held on Mondays and Thursdays. During the rest of the week, the legislators often hold committee meetings or public hearings. Since the legislature does not meet year-round, legislative work is a part-time job. Most legislators have another job as well.

The leader of the Senate is the Senate President. The Speaker of the General Assembly heads that body.

The President and the Speaker schedule meetings and determine which bills will be considered within their respective houses. They also lead the legislative sessions.

While both houses introduce and vote on bills, the Senate and Assembly have individual powers, too. The Senate approves the governor’s appointees to official positions. The Assembly can bring impeachment charges but the Senate is the court of impeachment in New Jersey, where the charges are tried. Any bills requiring revenue to be raised start out in the Assembly. But, by custom, the Senate handles the state budget.

A legislator must live in the district he or she represents. Senators have to be at least 30 and have to live in New Jersey for at least four years before being elected. Members of the Assembly must be at least 21 and state residents for two years.

There is also leadership within the political parties in both houses. The majority and minority leaders and the assistant leaders develop each party's policies on the issues raised in the bills. Additionally, there are many committees that review legislation. Learn more about the role of committees and the process of making a law in "

The (OLS), a non-partisan agency, provides legal advice and research support to both houses. OLS staff also drafts the bills and resolutions. In addition, each house has partisan staff that performs similar functions, but only for their respective parties. Each legislator also has his or her own district office with staff to handle constituent issues.

Read the letter Coretta Scott King wrote opposing …

that he highlight the concern in his annual report on the state of the federal judiciary
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When you think of the government, what first comes to mind? If you're like most folks, you're probably picturing either the president, leading the free world from the Oval Office, or the dozens of powerful legislators holding the floor in . Chances are, the judicial branch is but a mere afterthought, if you've thought of it at all.

But don't feel too bad about forgetting about the judicial branch; you're actually following in the hallowed footsteps of the themselves. The , which organized America's first national government just after the , made no mention of any kind of a federal court system or judicial power. And when the young nation's leaders got together in 1787 to overhaul the Articles of Confederation (which weren't working out too well), they created a new Constitution that, once again, treated the judiciary as a bit of an afterthought. (Yes, the Constitution's Framers created the judicial branch and made it one of three equal branches of government—but they also deliberately listed the judiciary as the third of the three branches and gave the judiciary only a tiny fraction of the attention they devoted to creating the legislative and executive branches.) The right of judicial review, arguably the branch's most important power and most important check on the other two branches of government, isn't actually mentioned in the Constitution at all; it had to be "created" in an .

So, then, we have a long tradition of treating the judicial branch like a side of sauce on a dinner plate: a bit superfluous and easily forgettable, compared to the legislative/executive main course. But, really, this governmental meal is a slow-cooked stew; when we take a closer look, we find that the federal judiciary is far tastier—more substantial, complex, and intriguing—than we ever imagined.

We know, we know: too many food references. We'll go grab a snack. But first, let's establish a few basics.

Number one: the is only one, albeit the most powerful, element of the judicial branch. Although the nine black-robed justices of the highest court in the land are the most recognizable officials of the federal court system, they represent only a small fraction of the many judges who serve the federal government in dozens of different courts from coast to coast.

Number two: the makeup and organization of the judiciary has changed many times since its inception. Article III of the Constitution is remarkably vague—remember that it was an afterthought at the —which means that politicians and judges have spent the past 200 years tinkering with the judicial branch's structure over and over again.

Number three: the road to a hearing before the US Supreme Court is a long one for most cases. Before you jump into any of our Controversies of Interpretation, you'll want to wrap your head around the elaborate organization of appellate courts, constitutional courts, and special courts that make up the body of the federal judiciary.

Now, onto the story of our national umpires!

 

About NJ Government - New Jersey

and the federal judiciary was vaguely defined and could become too powerful.
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State courts deal with criminal cases, contract laws, and property disputes, while federal courts judge cases involving the constitution, state disputes, and foreign treaties.

In both, the state as well as federal judiciary, verdicts can be appealed in higher courts.

The vacant shell of the federal judiciary becomes an inviting home for all manner ..
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This arrangement also helps distribute power between the state and federal governments, and keeps the latter from becoming too powerful.

Both, the federal and state judiciaries are then subdivided into three branches - lower courts, appellate courts, and the supreme courts.


Supreme Court & Judicial Review - Constitutionality Crisis

The federal judicial system, on the other hand, is based on upholding the constitution of the country, and there is only one common federal judiciary for the entire country.

The Supreme Court and Judicial Review Judicial Review

Since the constitution does not give this power to the court, you might wonder how it came to be that the court assumed this responsibility. The answer is that the court just started doing it and no one has put a stop to it. This assumption of power took place first in 1794 when the Supreme Court declared an act of congress to be unconstitutional, but went largely unnoticed until the landmark case of Marbury v Madison in 1803. is significant less for the issue that it settled (between Marbury and Madison) than for the fact that Chief Justice John Marshall used to provide a rationale for judicial review. Since then, the idea that the Supreme Court should be the arbiter of constitutionality issues has become so ingrained that most people incorrectly believe that the Constitution granted this power to the federal judiciary.

CITIZENS UNITED v. FEDERAL ELECTION COMM’N

The Supreme Court of the United States spends much, if not most, of its time on a task which is not delegated to the Supreme Court by the Constitution. That task is: Hearing cases wherein the constitutionality of a law or regulation is challenged. The Supreme Court's nine Justices attempt to sort out what is, and what is not constitutional. This process is known as Judicial Review. But the states, in drafting the Constitution, did not delegate such a power to the Supreme Court, or to any branch of the government.