• Philip II of Spain - Wikipedia
  • Humanities
  • Spain and Portugal , 718 AD-Present

Philip II: Philip II, king of Spain (1556–98) and Portugal (1580–98) who was a champion of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation.

The Currency of Power – Foreign Policy

How I Got Fired, by Philip Giraldi - The Unz Review

Sailer, Shamir, Karlin, Saker, et al
The Arab historian Philip Hitti has said that Spain shone for a few years with a "borrowed glory" from its creative mediaeval communites, but then sank into the status of a cultural and political backwater.

Philip Giraldi by bringing up the names of these people

Philip III: Philip III, king of Spain and of Portugal (as Philip II) whose reign (1598–1621) was characterized by a successful peaceful foreign policy in western Europe and internally by the expulsion of the Moriscos (Christians of Moorish ancestry) and government by the king’s favourites.
It may have been Philip II who issued the first decree for "these realms of Spain." As it happens, this was issued from Lisbon after Philip claimed the Throne of Portugal in 1580 and occupied the Kingdom.


Spanish royals make their way to ..

His grandson, Charles XII, the "Madman of the North," revived Swedish military fortunes and then saw them catastrophically collapse when he was defeated far inside Russia by at Poltava (1709).