• Toll climbs in European E
  • coli outbreak
  • by a rare strain of E

The outbreak involved a rare strain of E coli 0157 called Phage Type 8 (PT8). It affected 193 people in England, 44 in Scotland and 14 in Wales. While 40% of the 250 were under-16s, 69% were female.

2 Unusual Traits Blended in German E

the bacteria stuck to surfaces in the ..

Jun 22, 2011 · The combination of the two traits in one E
E. coli, especially the ExPEC pathotype, is an important cause of community and nosocomial-acquired infections, especially of urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, surgical site infections, pneumonia and sepsis ().The cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are considered as 1st line agents and often used to treat community and hospital infections caused by E. coli. The management of infections caused by ExPEC has been complicated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance to first line antibiotics (). Until the late 1990s, ExPEC were relatively susceptible to 1st line antibiotics, however severalsurveillance studies during the 2000’s across Europe, North and South America, have shown that between 20 – 55% of ExPEC are resistant to 1st line antibiotics including the cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (, , ). Resistance to these agents is causing delays in appropriate therapy with subsequent increased morbidity and mortality (, ).

E. coli Outbreak Alert - Preparis

In 2011, nearly 4,000 people in Europe, primarily in Germany, became ill and 53 died from eating bean sprouts from a German organic farm contaminated with a rare strain of E. coli. Some of those people actually grew their own sprouts from seed — seed that originated from the implicated farm.
Most recently, the need for an effective in vivo model prompted a unique investigation using severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and xenographs from fetal intestinal tissue to generate a model with intact and functional human tissue during infection. Fetal tissue was implanted into the subscapular region of SCID mice and then infected by direct intraluminal inoculation. Findings using this approach demonstrated the ability for AAF to trigger polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) migration across mucosal surfaces of the intestinal epithelial barrier. However, the availability of fetal tissue is rare and restricted, which will significantly constrict the broad acceptability and use of this model. Also, this approach does not allow scientists to address critical interaction between innate and adaptive immunity during EAEC infection leaving a significant portion of the pathogenesis story untold.

 

coli in this outbreak is called O104 and is not ..


Measured immune responses in infected subjects represent the result of a delicate balance between host–microbial interactions. Additionally, responses are specific and dependent on variables found among hosts and EAEC strains. For instance, genetic variability seen in both host and EAEC strains can significantly impact the susceptibility and outcome of EAEC infection. The capacity for specific EAEC strains to produce Stx2 and cause HUS-induced mortality demonstrates enhanced virulence. In other instances, host age dictates disease severity portrayed when children are more susceptible to persistent EAEC infection compared with healthy travelers. Regardless, studies have proven that bacterial-epithelial contact is a key determinant of host response to EAEC. The EAEC bacterial surface protein flagellin (FliC) has been shown to mediate NFκB and p38 MAP kinase activation in epithelial cells by cellular signaling through Toll-like receptor 5 resulting in Interleukin 8 (IL-8) production (, third enterocyte)., FliC is the major inducer of IL-8 release however other AggR regulated factors contribute and AAF adhesion is required for full IL-8 induction. IL-8 is a cytokine associated with infection with EAEC and other enteric pathogens. IL-8 production is involved in recruitment of neutrophils and the transmigration of these cells into the intestinal mucosa disrupts epithelial tight junctions ultimately inducing colitis: a mechanism of action common among diarrhea-inducing pathogens. Some research suggests that the induction of IL-8 and subsequent disruption of the epithelial barrier is beneficial for EAEC pathogenicity enhancing toxic effects on the host though in vivo models are yet to validate this theory. Elevated levels of fecal IL-1β, another cytokine that can induce neutrophil migration, have also been reported in adults diagnosed with EAEC induced traveler’s diarrhea. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding antimicrobial glycoprotein, has been a target in other studies that demonstrate significantly increased levels of this protein alongside fecal leucocytes in EAEC infected patients. Not surprisingly, CCL20, a dendritic cell recruiter, is also known to be upregulated after persistent EAEC stimulus.


Other accessory molecules have been discovered and associated with EAEC colonization to include a serine protease autotransporter, Pic. Pic is encoded on the chromosomes of EAEC strain 042 and is suggested to mount a pivotal role in the colonization and growth of EAEC. Having hemagglutinin and mucinolytic activity, Pic is able to penetrate the intestinal mucus layer and possibly promote EAEC growth by enhancing the use of nutrients from mucin., Notably, Pic causes hypersecretion of intestinal mucus in EAEC infected rat ileal loops while also significantly increasing the number of mucus-containing goblet cells in intestinal villi. Moreover, Pic efficiently cleaves extracellular glycoproteins on human leukocytes like CD43, a highly expressed surface marker found on almost all cells from a hematopoietic lineage. Interestingly, Pic protein is a key virulence factor in other enteropathogens including uropathogenic E. coli and Shigella flexneri, underscoring its importance in EAEC pathogenicity. Human neutrophils treated with purified Pic protein experience impaired chemotaxis and transmigration but increased activation of the neutrophil oxidative burst while activated T cells experience Pic-induced apoptosis.


FDA Investigates Multistate Outbreak of E

It seems that CMY-2 (stands for active on CephaMYcins) is the most common imported AmpC b-lactamase reported in Enterobacteriaceae from different areas of the world (). Jacoby and colleagues found plasmid-mediated AmpC-type resistance in 7 of 75 of ceftazidime resistant E. coli from 25 U.S. states; 2 of these isolates produced CMY-2 (). Mulvey and colleagues studied 232 cefoxitin resistant E. coli from 12 different hospitals in Canada and found 25 (11%) strains contained CMY-2 and 51 (22%) had different promoter and attenuator mutations (). Hospital surveys from Asia, North America and Europe have shown that the DHA types of cephamycinases are mostly present in Klebsiella spp from Asia, CMY are present in E. coli from Asia, North American and Europe while FOX are present in Klebsiella spp. from North America and Europe ().

outbreak strain of STEC (Shiga toxin producing E ..

coli strain that killed at least 45 people has resurfaced in , where officials said a cluster of eight people have fallen ill, apparently from eating contaminated sprouts grown in France.