• The North American Indians in Early Photographs.
  • Society of apache indians in north america | Digital …
  • Apache Apache, North American Indians ..

As with most in North America the lives of the Apache were destroyed as their life-blood, the buffalo were slaughtered by the whites.

North American Indian Timeline (1492-1999)

North American Indian Timeline (1492-1999) 1492

 Pictures and descriptions of ten different types of American Indian houses.
were known by the people of the pueblo
Indian villages as their friends."

The apache spent part of the winter near the easternmost pueblos, such as Taos and Pecos,
exchanging mostly consumer goods and taking shelter from plains storms.

Buffalo herds went south during the winter and the northern Texas plains lacked firewood,
making it essential to remain at peace in the sheltered regions of eastern New Mexico.

As more Spanish expeditions entered New Mexico in the 1580s a better understanding of
the Apaches' evolving geopolitical and economic role in the region emerged.

"Apaches were not simply the brutal, cruel people of Spanish folklore"

The Apache Athapaskan speakers had regular contact with most Pueblo towns and remained
peaceful despite the fact that the Pueblos themselves often fought each other.

The Apaches came to aid to other Indian groups, carrying on an extensive exchange of items
found in the mountains nearby.

FREE Essay on The Apache Indians of North America

Pictures and descriptions of many different types of American Indian weapons.
Native Americans lived in , , , , and longhouses. Some relied chiefly on hunting and fishing, while others crops. The Algonkian chiefs tried to achieve consensus, but the Natchez "Sun" was an absolute monarch. The was not a universal Indian symbol. It was used by tribes such as the Chinook in the Pacific Northwest to ward off evil spirits and represent family history.

 

The North American Indians: - Ancient-Wisdom


European settlers subsequently drove the Indians from their lands as settlers moved westward. Treaties were often drawn up after Indian leaders were plied with alcohol. Whether through intimidation, war, treachery, or outright fraud, the Native Americans were systematically dispossessed of their lands.

An Indian known as the Prophet advised the Shawnee to give up alcohol and the ways of the white men and return to their traditional ways. He founded a peaceful community in Prophetstown, Indiana. His brother Tecumseh organized surrounding Indian tribes into a Confederation to resist the incursions of white settlers. In the Treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809, William Henry Harrison negotiated with only three of the many Indian tribes and bought 3 million acres in Indiana and Illinois for less than one cent an acre! When an Illinois tribe raided a small village, Harrison took advantage of the situation and headed to Prophetstown, even though the Shawnee had nothing to do with the raid. Harrison defeated the Confederation at Tippecanoe on November 11, 1811.

The peak of disenfranchisement occurred with the enforcement of President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830. Four of the five "Civilized Tribes" were driven from their lands. These acts left the once proud and resourceful Indians a dispirited, heart-broken race. The Choctaws in Mississippi and Alabama were the first to be resettled in 1832, followed by the Creeks (1836) and the Chickasaws (1837). But it was the resettlement of Cherokees by Jackson's Federal troops in 1838-1839 from Georgia to lands west of the Mississippi that left 5000 Cherokees dead on the Trail of Tears.

The fifth tribe, the only one to maintain presence in their native territory, were the Seminoles of Florida. In spite of three Seminole Wars, the Seminoles wisely never signed a treaty with the Federal Government and survived in Florida!

The Indians of the Great Plains and those resettled from the East faced a similar fate from the Western expansion of the Nation. The Lewis and Clark Expedition from 1804 made it to the Pacific Ocean because of the hospitality of the Mandan Indians and their Shoshone guide Sacajawea.


Today, there are a great deal of wonderful recipe books that can be found on Indian food. The tradition of Indian cooking lives on among family members and friends, and there is even a special food pyramid designed especially for the Native American to be sure they are getting the nutrition they need. Food has always been an integral part of the Indian way of life, and the traditional recipes can be shared for many generations to come.


Numerous Palaeo-Indian cultures occupied North America, ..

Two different cultures would face off on the Plains for nearly a century: the "Manifest Destiny" of white settlers heading west versus the Plains Indians protecting their heritage. In an effort to confine Indians to reservations, Federal agents would sign treaties such as the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851, granting extensive territory to the Indians, only to have other Federal agents break the treaties in support of the Homestead Act of 1862, which granted land to predominantly white settlers from the East. But the Indians put up incredible resistance under such figures as Red Cloud, the only Indian to have defeated the U. S Army in Red Cloud's War of 1866-1868. In reaction to the US breaking the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated George Custer and the Seventh Cavalry in at Little Big Horn on June 25, 1876. Using justified resistance as an excuse, Federal troops eventually drove the Nez Perce, Crows, Apache, Sioux, and other Plains Indians from their lands. In response to the , the final defeat occurred at Wounded Knee in December 1890, with the death of Sitting Bull, Big Foot, and a band of Lakotas.

The ultimate absurdity occurred on June 2, 1924 when the American Indians, the natives of America, were granted citizenship by the very people that drove them off their lands.

Pre-Columbian Civilization: North American Indians …

First, Native Americans had no immunologic protection against such European diseases as smallpox, typhus, and measles. For those in frequent contact with European settlers, the effects were devastating: it is estimated that up to 90% of native Americans, perhaps numbering in the millions, died during the first century of contact with the Europeans.

Second, Native Americans had different spiritual beliefs than Europeans. They saw the land as a living being, as a mother who nurtured her children. The thought of buying and selling land was unthinkable to them. The Indians saw the offers from Europeans for land to build and farm as joining an existing relationship, not to transfer ownership. Misperception ensued. Some tribes resented the attempts of the Europeans to convert them to Christianity.

And third, the Indian tribes, with the exception of the Five Nation Iroquois, lacked unity, and, as most of the European nations at the time, were often rivals with each other. This made them vulnerable to the Europeans with their superior weaponry.

The Virginia Company was the first to establish a permanent English colony in 1607 at Jamestown, named after King James I of England. The Anglicans barely survived the first winter, but antagonism quickly developed with the Powhatan Indians. The first of three Anglo-Powhatan Wars ensued as early as 1609, and did not resolve until the of Pocahontas and John Rolfe in 1614. Tobacco brought survival to the English colony. The first meeting of the House of Burgesses in a Jamestown church on July 30, 1619 was the first representative government in the English colonies.

Atrocities between Indians and colonists happened everywhere and were committed by both sides. Five Spanish Franciscans who attempted to introduce monogamous marriage to the Guale Indians were martyred in Darien, Georgia in September 1597. Five hundred Pequot Indian men, women, and children were burned alive in May 1637 at Mystic River, Connecticut by a vengeful Puritan militia in the name of divine retribution. Isaac Jogues and seven French Jesuits were martyred by the Mohawks at Auriesville, New York in October 1646. Metacomet, known as King Philip, the son of the Pokanoket sachem Massasoit, tried to preserve Native American presence against the unprincipled land grab of colonial expansion in New England, and led the June 1675 - August 1676 King Philip's War, but died August 12, 1676. But the worst devastation began in 1702, when James Moore, the English Governor of South Carolina, wrote his own Black Legend when he, his soldiers, and Yemassee Indians swept through Georgia to Florida and annihilated the Franciscan missions and massacred the Timucua and Apalachee Mission Indians of Florida, some by impaling them on stakes or burning them alive. He then attacked St. Augustine, but the townsfolk retreated to St. Mark's Castle. Moore bombarded the castle for 50 days, but, unsuccessful, Moore finally gave up, but not before he torched most of the town. By his own writings, Moore captured several thousand Indians and reduced them to slavery. Disgraced, he stepped down as governor upon his return, not because of his extreme cruelty, but because of his failure to capture St. Augustine!