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Canada (May 22, 1997)The issue in this case was a "permit" for a hydro line across the appellants' reserve "for such period of time as the .

, the AIHEC faced the issue of funding for all Native ..

Labor Rights And Tribal Sovereignty Collide At Indian …

20/01/2016 · I understand the outrage of Native people
The persistent juxtaposition of “traditional” indigenous culture and the destructive capacity of modernity and global capital mirror the asymmetrical relationship between nature/femininity and culture/masculinity described by Ortner. That is, mainstream American culture is sympathetic towards – and sensitive to – the plight of American Indian culture and lifeways. Perhaps even going so far as to acknowledge the important contributions American Indian communities have made to mainstream American culture. However, such sympathy is a product of male-oriented paternalism that conceives of Euro-American lifeways as inevitably more “cultured” than their indigenous counterparts, for whom the relationship between human, animal, and supernatural beings is an integral component of local systems of authority, power, and cosmology.

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While the and “Indians” exhibit some sensitivity to issues of genocide and coercive assimilation, this attitude is representative of a decidedly different form of male power. Unlike the evocation of male violence and sexual dominance present in the shirt and , the statue and the Anthrax song reflect more paternalistic forms of male power and control. Indigenous peoples, whose traditions and lifeways are intimately connected to nature, are powerless to stop the totalizing force of modernity. This narrative echoes anthropologist Sherry Ortner’s claims regarding the relationship between nature and culture, and masculinity and femininity. She writes,

 

Native Women’s Struggles – Indigenous Peoples …


While heavy metal T-shirts, Halloween costumes, and nineteenth century American art operate within distinct “object cultures,” the use of particular visual expressions of Native American life indeed perdures. While the historical and material specificity associated with each individual object reflects shifting systems of production, use, circulation, and value, all rely on narratives of cultural decline, victimhood, and normative forms of male power. When examined collectively, the ways in which Native American culture is framed by the dominant culture begin to take on transhistorical scope. That is to say that the remarkable consistency with which Native American lifeways are contextualized for non-indigenous consumers and viewers reflects both the specific historical and material conditions in which a particular object circulates, as well as the larger-scale dynamics of indigenous/non-indigenous relations.


Like the Mastodon t-shirt, this perspective on native culture is indebted to representations of indigenous people from classic tropes in American art. Most notably, the sentiment express by Anthrax echoes Thomas Crawford’s 1856 sculpture . [fig. 4] The title of the work is totally unambiguous about the intent of its formal composition. The chief stares pensively, presumably as he performs the pondering suggested by the title. His classical body is adorned with a feather headdress, and his tomahawk is laid safely on the ground next to his feet. He is both helpless and accepting of the unassailable march of progress. The is a material evocation of the purported timelessness of Indian lifeways. It additionally conflates these lifeways with nature, thus maintaining the nature/culture binary that is paramount to the reification of narratives of progress and civilization.


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As a subculture that purposefully situates itself outside of the accepted social norms of the state, the myriad thematic elements employed by metal bands reflect an anti-authoritarian sensibility. From extreme acts such as the church arsons in Norway in the early nineties to the seemingly banal obsession with , heavy metal is a subculture in which one’s identity is inextricably linked to one’s position vis-à-vis the state. It is not surprising, then, that issues of Native American sovereignty serve as an occasional source of lyrical inspiration. Pointing the finger at the agents of the state responsible for the systematic eradication of traditional lifeways and enforcement of the reservation system becomes symbolic of larger issues of state control and arrogance. Most notably, “Indians,” by New York-based thrash metal legends Anthrax, recounts the plight of indigenous peoples living on reservations.

A Hard-Fought Victory To Restore Tribal Land Faces …

Despite lead singer Joey Belladonna’s claims of partial Native American ancestry, the music video for the song is riddled with outmoded and romantic representations of native peoples. Belladonna’s massive feather headdress, the projected images of portrait photographs and other images of ethnographic interest, and the instrumentation, harmony, and rhythm of the song’s intro evoke standard images of indigenous culture that reify the tradition/modernity binary that is endemic to popular imaginations of Native American life.

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While Vanderlyn’s use of such a well-known source as the model for his Indians may be reflective of his desire to display his works in Europe, the comparison between Indians and Gladiators also reflects hegemonic attitudes towards Native American masculinity. The sculptural quality of the two male bodies, contrasted with the frail and captive McCrea, reflects an attraction to, and revulsion of, Indian male physical power. Although the “savagery” of the two captors is made readily apparent, the gladiatorial source implies that there is an exciting, almost revelatory, potential in the raw physicality of the two captors.