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J AIN PHILOSOPHY “The Art of Living” 1. Introduction. 2. Concept of God. 3. Founders. 4. Philosophy. 4.1 The Jain Reality (Six Universal Substances)

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Up to now, Western peace research has tended to focus on peace as the absence of negative or undesirable things (including war, physical violence, and structural violence, on all levels). Even the concept of "positive peace" has been defined as the absence of structural violence. It is clear that a peaceful world cannot be created only by eliminating negatives: one must also have a clear vision of what one wants to create in a positive sense. These positive attributes of peace include both inner and outer dimensions. The field of Future Studies is a good place to look for some of the positive aspects of creating peace in the world, i.e., outer peace, as well as certain aspects of inner peace. In this regard futurists often quote Fred Polak who said "A civilization without positive images of itself is doomed." Global spiritual traditions are the obvious other place to gain insight into the multileveled different aspects of creating and experiencing inner peace. As peace research adopts a broader inner-outer framework for considering peace, it is likely that insights and experiences from explorations of inner peace will help create a more balanced view of outer peace in which positive peace can become a desirable ideal in its own right, rather than a concept that is defined in terms of the absence of something undesirable.5. Peace Research Must Explore and Include How Cultures Influence People's Perceptions of 'Peace' as Well as How Much People Believe the World Can Be Changed or Not.

In a globally interdependent world, it is critical that peace research include perspectives on peace, and how to create it, from different cultures around the world and that people be open to dialoging with each other on these various perspectives on peace. Peace research must explore how different cultures (and religions), and their underlying values, influence (often unconsciously) how peoples (including peace researchers) from different cultures perceive "peace'--both in the negative sense of what they want to eliminate, as well as in the positive sense of what they want to create, and indeed how culture itself influences how much people believe they can change their conditions of life in the external world or not. For example, Western cultures are much more likely to believe that the external world can be changed by actions in the external world, and therefore to focus their energies in this direction; whereas Eastern cultures may accept the state of the external world more and focus instead on their inner world. In short (while noting the dangers of over generalization) Western cultures have been called "doing cultures" while Eastern cultures have been called "being cultures." Peace may require both of these perspectives in the twenty first century. Insights from the fields of anthropology, intercultural communication, comparative religions, and the ongoing inter-religious dialogue should help in this endeavor.

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For Western peace research, this represents a shift from secular towards spiritual peace paradigms, a realization that inner peace and outer peace-- spiritual and material--are interconnected and interdependent. It is here that the contributions of the world's religious and spiritual traditions can help us better understand holistic peace. For example, the idea that the collective external world of outer peace is in some way a representation or image of the collective inner world of spiritual peace, may be of particular importance in the creation of a holistic, inner and outer global culture of peace. The variety and diversity of humanity's religious life, as celebrated in the ecumenical tradition, would then provide a dynamic link between the inner and outer worlds, such that inner-outer peace would be manifest in all aspects of a culture of peace--including macro and micro social and economic institutions, local and global values, art, literature, music, technology, meditation and prayer. The resulting culture of peace would display a Gaia-like global pattern, where the interacting local cultures are manifestations of the inner unity and outer diversity principle spread throughout the whole system. Definitions of reality would be fundamentally different under such a paradigm. Whereas "reality" in Western Peace Theory has previously been defined in terms of aspects of the material world, leading to a concentration on economic, military and political questions, "reality" under a holistic peace paradigm includes both material and spiritual components. A holistic culture of peace (balancing inner and outer, feminine and masculine, material and spiritual in a both/and framework) will lead to a completely different outcome to peace theories that concentrate on changing the outer world, but do not balance such concerns with a parallel and interdependent exploration of the inner.


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This sixth view of peace sees inner, esoteric (spiritual) aspects of peace as essential. Spiritually based peace theory stresses the interactive relationships, the mutual co-arising, between all things and the centrality of inner peace. In addition to the relationships of human beings with each other and the world--including the environment-- a spiritual dimension is added to Gaia-peace theory. This dimension is expressed in different ways by peace researchers, depending on their cultural context. As in the Tao of Physics, where new paradigms in physics resonate with worldviews found in Eastern mysticism, this new paradigm in peace research resonates with much thinking in world spiritual and religions traditions. Peace has truly become indivisible.

In summary it can be said that Eastern religions and cultures, including Hinduism and Buddhism, have a 'tendency'--because of their focus more (though not exclusively) on the esoteric aspects of their religions--to focus more on inner peace as a precondition for peace in the world. They also have less of a tradition historically of concern with social justice questions, which are so important to the West. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that the link between inner peace (based on a spiritual life) and outer peace (or action in the world for social justice) was most clearly made for the first time in the world in any collective societal way by Mahatma Gandhi, who was born in India and came out of a Hindu background, but who also studied in England.

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In conclusion, this section has explored the possible role of mythology as a bridge between our outer lives in the world--what is comparable to the exoteric aspect of religion, with the development of an inner life of the spirit--what is comparable to the esoteric aspects of religion. If mythology and archetypal figures can help us to embark on the hero's journey to discover and encounter the deeper aspects of our being, then perhaps nonviolent, archetypal models can also be found for our actions in the world that are appropriate to our technologically sophisticated and interdependent world for our actions in the world.

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Western religions and cultures, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,--have had a tendency--because of their focus more (though not exclusively) on the exoteric aspects of their religions, at least in their everyday activities--to focus more on aspects of outer peace, including social justice questions, as a precondition for peace in the world. There are nonetheless esoteric traditions in the West, which though less dominant, were nonetheless the foundation for the original spiritual enlightenment experienced by the founders of all the world's great religions, including the three dominant Western religions--Judaism, Christianity and Islam. These can take the form of the Kaballah (in Judaism), Gnostic Christianity (in Christianity) and Sufism (in Islam), as examples, although there have always been some mystics in the mainstream forms of all the Western religions as well.